Analysing an individual's unique cardiac patterns for identity verification or authentication.
Technology: Heartbeat biometrics rely on electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements, which record the electrical activity of the heart. Specialized sensors or devices capture the ECG signals, usually through contact with the individual's skin.
Unique Cardiac Patterns: Each person has a distinct cardiac rhythm, heart rate, and other characteristics that make their ECG patterns unique. These patterns can be analysed and used as a biometric trait for identity verification.
Authentication Process: During enrolment, an individual's ECG data is recorded and stored as a reference template. During subsequent authentication, their ECG signals are captured again and compared with the stored template to verify their identity.
Contact-Based and Contactless Approaches: Heartbeat biometrics can be implemented using contact-based methods, where sensors are attached to the individual's body, or contactless methods that capture ECG signals remotely, without direct physical contact.
Advantages: Heartbeat biometrics offer certain advantages. The heart's electrical signals are unique to an individual and difficult to replicate or imitate. Additionally, ECG signals are less affected by external factors such as aging, changes in appearance, or temporary physiological conditions.
Application Areas: Heartbeat biometrics have potential applications in various fields. They can be used for secure access control, authentication in healthcare settings, identification in financial transactions, and monitoring individual health status.
Challenges: Despite its potential, heartbeat biometrics face challenges such as the need for specialized sensors or devices for accurate ECG signal capture. The implementation may require user cooperation and may not be suitable for high-throughput scenarios due to the time required for ECG measurements.
Heartbeat biometrics are an emerging area of research, and ongoing advancements aim to improve accuracy, usability, and the integration of this unique biometric trait into practical applications.